How efficient are Solar panels

The Solar Panels have been in the limelight for the past few decades all over the nation. The Punjab Energy Development Agency presents fundamental questions related to the efficiency of Solar Panels.

What is a solar panel, how does it make electricity?

In solar panels or modules, there are photovoltaic cells made of silicon that convert incoming sunlight into electrical power. "Photovoltaic" means light to light - photo = light, voltaic = electric. Solar photovoltaic cells consist of a positive and negative film of silicon located under a thin piece of glass. As photons of sunlight fall on these cells, they charge electrons with silicon. The negatively charged free electrons attract to one side of the silicon cell, creating an electric voltage that is collected or sent forward from the channel.

What are the domestic energy requirements?

Check your old electricity bills to know the average usage. Divide the monthly used power unit by 30 to find the daily average. Your answer will be in kilowatt-hours (kWh). (If you run a 60- day bulb 24 hours throughout the day, you are using 1,440-watt power or 1.4kWh.

What is the average daily target?

Solar panels do not always work at maximum efficiency. Weather conditions, for example, may temporarily reduce the efficiency of your system. Hardware issues also cause the system to generate less energy than expected. Experts recommend that you should add a 25 per cent margin to your household energy requirements to overcome such inefficiencies and achieve the target daily average.

What is the useful surface area of your roof?

For this, you have to measure the shadow-free area of the roof. A Shade-free area means there is good sunlight in the area during day time..

How many panels will my goals provide per hour watt?

There is a huge variation in solar panel capabilities and performance, with panel sizes and modules ranging in > 450 watts. Divide the hourly energy requirement of your home by the wattage of solar panels to calculate the total number of panels you need. This will give you the ideal number of panels for your power generation needs.

Next, assess your roof architecture, sun angle, and other factors with a professional solar installer, which will give you a validation of how many panels you need to achieve your daily energy production goals.

What is the cost of a kilowatt solar system?

The cost of an on-grid rooftop system is around Rs 55,000 per kWh and the cost of an off-grid system is approx. Rs 100000 per kWh, including five years warranty & AMC.

What is the warranty for a solar system?

Different components in a solar system have different warranties. These are, as discussed below:

  • Panels - Solar panels typically come with a 25-year performance warranty.
  • Batteries - A wide range of batteries used in solar systems are warranted. Lithium ferro phosphate (LiFePO 4) batteries have a warranty of about 5 years and the life of LiFePO 4 is more than seven years..
  • Inverter - Inverter warranties vary with different types of inverters. Inverters typically come with a five-year warranty.
What type of maintenance is required in a solar system?

Solar panels typically require very little maintenance because there are no moving parts. The panels must be inspected, several times in a year, for any dirt or debris that may collect on them. Always make sure that you are safety conscious when inspecting the panels and do not take any unnecessary risks if your panels are too high on the roof to look very well from the ground, taking precautions along the ladder for general cleaning. Just use a standard garden hose to wash the panel face during the morning or evening, avoid sprinkling cold water on hot panels.

How much electricity will be generated from the solar PV system?

Your location determines the amount of sunlight falling on the panel. Therefore, it is the most important factor to determine solar energy production. It determines the Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) which is the amount of energy falling per square meter per day at that location. The DNI for a sunny area is about 6 kW / square meter/day.
The higher the DNI, the more the power produced by a solar cell. On average, a 1 kg watt solar system in North India produces 5 units of electricity.

PEDA sets up Solar Power Projects in Punjab on BOO Basis

Since, the State of Punjab has immense potential for quality solar irradiation, the harnessing of this resource can be best suited to meet the energy requirements of the posteriority. Fiscal and financial incentives are being provided by the State under the NRSE Policy to encourage private sector participation in this area noticeably in terms of assured buyback of power by State utility. This energy can be utilized for the generation of power during the daytime. Punjab has so far been maximum meeting its electrical power requirements primarily through conventional large thermal. Solar Power Plant is set up in the State of Punjab on BOO Basis for sale of power to PSPCL by signing a long term power purchase agreement. PEDA had set up the Ground Mounted Solar Plants in three phases and the total capacity installed in the State as of date is 815.5 MW.